A sentence is a group of grammatically linked words that expresses a complete thought. The process by which two or more simple sentences are joined to form one-simple, compound or complex sentence is called synthesis. The process of breaking a sentence into phrases and clauses is called analysis.

Synthesis of sentences is the opposite of analysis of sentences and involves combining number of simple sentences into one new sentence. The new sentence formed might be either simple, compound or a complex sentence.

A simple sentence consists of — a single finite verb, a subject and a predicate. When two simple sentences are combined to form a new sentence, it should contain a finite verb.

There are three types of sentences in English–simple, complex and compound sentences.

  • A simple sentence has just one clause.
  • A complex sentence has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
  • A compound sentence has more than one main clause.

Study the examples given below:

  • It is too late to start a new chapter.

This sentence has just one clause and therefore it is a simple sentence.

The number of clauses in a sentence is equal to the number of finite verbs in it.

Note: to-infinitives and –ing forms are not finite verbs.

Synthesis of Sentences

The process of synthesis works in three ways:

  • Making a new simple sentence by adding two simple sentences.
  • Making a new compound sentence with two simple sentences.
  • Making a new complex sentence with two simple sentences.

Making of Simple Sentence

A simple sentence can be made by combining two or more simple sentences by the following given ways:

By using a Participle: Two simple sentences can be combined into one simple sentence by using a participle when:-

  • The two sentences have a common subject.
  • And the two actions are done simultaneously.

A participle cannot be used when the simple sentences have different subjects. For example:

  • Separate: He saw a tiger. He fled away. [‘He’ is the common subject.]
  • Combined: Seeing a tiger he fled away.
  • Separate: She tired of reading. She retired to bed. [‘She’ is the common subject.]
  • Combined: Being tired of reading, she retired to bed.

When in two simple sentences, one action is completed before the other starts, we use ‘having’+ ‘past participle’ or ‘being’+ ‘past participle’ to join the sentences.

  • I was exhausted. I went to sleep.
  • Being exhausted, I went to sleep.

By using a noun or a phrase in apposition: Two simple sentences can be combined into a single simple sentence by using a noun or phrase in apposition.

An apposition is the use of a noun or a phrase immediately following a noun in the sentence and making special reference to it. For example:

  • Separate: Neha spent two days in Rome. It is one of the most attractive places in Italy.
  • Combined: Neha spent two days in Rome, one of the most attractive places in Italy.
  • Separate: My cousin was killed in a plane crash. He was one of my greatest supporters in my bad time.
  • Combined: My cousin, one of my greatest supporters in my bad time, was killed in a plane crash.

By using a preposition with noun or gerund: In some cases, a preposition/ preposition phrase may be used to form a new sentence from few simple sentences. Preposition is used with a noun or a gerund. For example:

  • Separate: The moon rose. Their journey was not ended.
  • Combined: Before their journey was ended, the moon rose. (preposition +gerund)
  • Separate : The king has lot of power. He does not have any friends.
  • Combined: In spite of all his powers, the king does not have any friend. (preposition + noun).

By using, Nominative Absolute Construction: A nominative absolute is the subject that does not affect the number and/or person of the verb in the sentence. This is used when:

  • The two simple sentences to be joined appear to be related.
  • They have different subjects.
  • The new simple sentence formed is as followed: ‘subject + having + past participle’ OR ‘there+ being+ subject’.

If the sentence is in passive voice, it should be changed into an absolute phrase retaining its passive form. For example:

  • Separate: The police arrived. The mob dispersed.
  • Combined: The police having arrived, the mob dispersed.
  • Separate: Rains have been plentiful this year. The crop of rice has been rich.
  • Combine: Rains having been plentiful this year, the crop of rice has been rich.

By using an Infinitive: Two simple sentences can be joined into one by using an infinitive when a sentence expresses a purpose or cause. For example:

  • Separate: I am going to Delhi. I have to purchase a house. [Purpose: purchase of house]
  • Combined: I am going to Delhi to purchase a house.
  • Separate: Ajay is very weak. Ajay cannot pass this year. [Cause: weak]
  • Combined: Ajay is too weak to pass this year.

By using an Adverb or an Adverbial Phrase: To combine two simple sentences into one simple sentence, an adjective is converted into an adverb or an adverbial phrase. For Example:

  • Separate: It was evening. The flight had not reached by the time.
  • Combined: The flight had not reached by evening.
  • Separate: Ajay was dismissed from service. His dismissal was undeserved.
  • Combined: Ajay was undeservedly dismissed from service.

Several of these methods can be combined in the same sentence also for the formation of a new sentence. For example:

  • The sun rose. The fog dispersed. The general determined to delay no longer. He gave order to advance.

These four simple sentences may be combined to form a single simple sentence.

  • At sunrise, the fog having dispersed, the general, determined to delay no longer, gave the order to advance.

By using too+ Adjective / Adverb

  • Separate: He is Poor. He cannot buy this.
  • Combined: He is too poor to buy this.
  • Separate: She is weak. She cannot run.
  • Combined: She is too weak to run.

Adjective / Adverb + Enough

  • Separate: This hall is large. Five hundred persons can sit in it.
  • Combined: This hall is large enough for five hundred persons to sit in.
  • Separate: He has much time. He can enjoy this big mall.
  • Combined: He has time enough to enjoy this big mall.

Making of Complex Sentence

Complex sentence are made by adding two or more than two simple sentences. A complex sentence has a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

The principal clause can be considered a complete sentence in itself, but the subordinate clause is dependent on the main clause for its meaning.

When we join two or more simple sentences to form a complex sentence, we retain one sentence as the principle clause and convert the other sentence into a subordinate clause which can be a noun, adjective or an adverb clause.

By using noun clause: Noun clause works in different ways in a complex sentence:

  • Subject of verb,
  • Object of transitive verb or preposition,
  • Verb of incomplete predication ( is, are, am, was, were) complement and
  • in case of opposition.
  • In synthesis also noun form can be used by using noun clause.

The conjunction used for introducing a noun clause is ‘that’. For example:

  • Separate: He is speaking true. It is known to all.
  • Combined: That he is speaking true it is known to all.
  • Separate: She is saint. Everybody knows it.
  • Combined: Everybody knows that she is a saint.

By using Adjective Clause:  Synthesis of adjective clause can be done by relative pronoun (who, which, that) or relative adverb (where, when, why).

An adjective clause does the work of an adjective in a complex sentence and modifies a noun in the principal clause.

When two simple sentences are joined to form one complex sentence, usually the second sentence is changed into an adjective clause.

The relative pronoun or relative adverb is placed nearest to its antecedent. For example:

  • Separate: Aditi met an old man. He was very weak.
  • Combined: Aditi met an old man who was very weak.
  • Separate: I have purchased a big house. It has a big guest room. My guestroom is well decorated.
  • Combined: The house that I have purchased has a big guest room which is well decorated.

By using Adverb clause: The adverb clause functions as an adverb in a complex sentence.

Synthesis can be done by using Adverb clause in a way of Adverb clause of time, reason, place, condition, comparison, contrast, result, manner.

The adverb clause is introduced using the appropriate subordinate conjunction (although, so that, if, while, when, until etc.) For example:

  • Separate: Tim committed the theft. He has been caught by the police.
  • Combined: Tim committed the theft, so he has been caught by the police.
  • Separate: Tell me the truth. I shall pardon you.
  • Combined: I shall pardon you if you tell me the truth.

Making of Compound Sentence

Compound sentences are made by adding two or more than two simple sentences. Synthesis also can be done by making co-ordinate conjunctions like (either-or, neither-nor, also, likewise, so, therefore, and, but) sometimes comma (,) and Semi colon (;) also work like co-ordinate conjunction and compound sentence can be made by that.

Coordinating conjunctions can be used to join grammatical units of the same class, rank or pattern. Coordinating conjunctions can be classified as:

  • cumulative conjunctions,
  • adversative conjunctions,
  • alternative conjunctions and
  • illative conjunctions.

Cumulative conjunction adds one statement to another. This includes conjunctions like: and, as well as, not only-but also, both, and.

Compound Example:

  • Pratap is a hard worker. He is a perfectionist.
  • Pratap is a hard worker and a perfectionist.

It can also be written as:

  • Pratap is not only a hard worker but also a perfectionist.

The conjunctions not only-but also, both-and are used for greater emphasis.

Adversative conjunctions express opposition and contrast. It includes the following conjunctions: but, still, yet, whereas, nevertheless, however.

Compound Example:

  • Amit was sick. He came for meeting.
  • Amit was sick but came for meeting.

An alternative conjunction expresses a choice between two alternatives. It includes conjunctions like: or, either-or, neither-nor, else, otherwise.

Compound Example:

  • Sit down. Leave the class.
  • Sit down or leave the class.

Illative conjunction expresses inference. It includes conjunctions like: so, therefore, for.

Compound Example:

  • The court has given the verdict. We must accept it.
  • The court has given the verdict, therefore, we must accept it.

New sentences can be made with the help of following models:

Model-1 : “ If ” and “ unless ” 

  • Work hard, you will pass. (If)
  • If you work hard, you will pass.
  • You must work hard. You will fail. (Unless)
  • Unless you work hard, you will fail.

Model-2 : “ As if ”, “ As though ”

  • Mahesh is not a rich man. But he talks like one. (as though)
  • Mahesh talks as though he were a rich man.
  • Ajay spoke like a great orator. (as if)
  • Ajay spoke as if he were a great orator.

Model-3 : “ Although ”, “ Though ”  

  • She is poor. But she is generous. (Though)
  • Though she is poor, she is generous.
  • He danced well. But he did not get the prize. (Although)
  • Although he danced well, he did not get the prize.

Model-4 : “ Too…to ”, “ So…that…not ”

  • She is very weak. So she cannot walk. (too…to)
  • She is too weak to walk.
  • Raman is too weak to walk. (So…that…not…)
  • Raman is so weak that he cannot walk.

Model-5: “ As soon as ”, “ No sooner ”

  • I saw my brother. At once I ran to meet him. (As soon as)
  • As soon as I saw my brother, I ran to meet him.
  • As soon as she saw a snake she ran away. (No sooner)
  • No sooner did she see a snake that she ran away.

Model-6 : “ Since ”, “ As ”, “ Because ”

  • I did not study well. So I failed in the examination. (Since)
  • Since I did not study well, I failed in the examination.
  • Kamala is blind. So she cannot see me. (As)
  • As Kamala is blind she cannot see me.
  • I like you. I shall help you. (because)
  • Because I like you, I shall help you.

Model-7 : Participles :

  • She saw the tiger and ran away. (seeing)
  • Seeing the tiger, she ran away.
  • I saw him walk along the road. (walking)
  • I saw him walking along the road.

Model-8 : “ In the event of ”

  • If you study well, you will pass the examination. (In the event of) In the event of you studying well, you will pass the examination.

Model-9 : “ In spite of ”

  • He worked hard. But he failed. (In spite of)
  • In spite of working hard, he failed.

Model-10 : “ Would rather ”

  • He prefer to write. He don’t want to speak. (would rather)
  • He would rather write than speak.

Model-11 : “ If only ”

  • The dog barked loudly. She did not like it. (if only)
  • If only the dog had not barked, she would have liked it.

While connecting two sentences by using the words or phrases given in brackets: [If], [Unless], [ As if], [As though], [Although], [Through], [Too ..to], [So … that … not], [ As soon as], [No sooner], [Since], [As], [Because], [Participles], [In the event of], [In spite of], [Would rather], [If only].

The following conjunctions should be omitted: Yet, still, but, really, at once, so, thus, however, nevertheless, only and therefore, and hence, then, for, also immediately, soon, now sometimes, ever and so, and or, exactly at that time, otherwise etc.

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